One of the properties of estrogens is their ability to increase the cells’ ability to hold wat er, which is why women with estrogen dominance are prone to edema (water retention). Cellular swelling is both a characteristic of the cellular stress response and a signal for cellular proliferation. Cellular swelling and proliferation are also hallmarks of cancer.
Estrogen has been shown to replicate the shock phase of the stress reaction in animals. Progesterone, a progestational molecule, nourishes the embryo and is essential to prevent miscarriage. It’s also an antistress molecule and anti-estrogenic
Synthetic progestins, while having some of the activity of progesterone, do not have the same physiological effects as endogenous progesterone. In fact, in some cases, they can have the opposite effect.
The 1965 to 1985 Coronary Drug Project found that Premarin, a weak estrogen, increased cancer, heart disease and mortality rates. The Nurses’ Health Study, which began in 1976, found that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increased the risk of ischemic stroke and cancer, and the Framingham Heart Study showed an increased risk of heart disease for estrogen users
The Women’s Health Initiative, which began in 1991, found women who used either